It is difficult for a healthy person to understand the psychology of a stutter who keeps aloof, tries to remain silent so as not to engage in a painful struggle with the word once again. The need to answer the most straightforward question sometimes turns into an impossible task.
According to statistics, around 5% of children under seven years of age, and 2% of schoolchildren suffer from stuttering in the world. Moreover, boys are three times more likely to encounter this ailment than girls.
In most cases, stuttering occurs between the ages of 2 and 6 years, during the period of intensive development of speech, when there is a rapid replenishment of the vocabulary. Speech functions are still weak and unstable. Children poorly control the volume of their voices, do not know how to control speech.
The nervous system is also in its infancy; it is still very fragile and sensitive. If during this period, the child is subjected to stress, fear, or emotional stress, then speech disruption may occur.
Stuttering is diagnosed with simple calculations and voice exercises speech therapy. The basis is a speech fragment containing 100 words. Further, the speech therapist considers how many times the speech was interrupted. If hesitation is 10% or more, then we can talk about stuttering.
By the way, speech cramps(the main symptom of stuttering) are different. So, clonic ones lead to the repetition of syllables and sounds, and tonic ones lead to a long pronunciation of the sound. The severity of the disease depends directly on the duration and frequency of speech spasms.
More often, convulsive symptoms are accompanied by deaf and voiced sonic consonants (especially n, t, k), as well as combinations of these sounds with other consonants. Usually, the smoothness of speech is interrupted when pronouncing common sentences that are complex in their grammatical structure.
The causes of stuttering are still the subject of research by speech therapists, neurologists, psychologists, and psychiatrists. The basis of the non-arc is an organic or functional violation of the central nervous system, which controls and coordinates the actions of speech mechanisms, provides the respiratory, voice, and articulatory apparatus.
Today there are some of the most common causes of stuttering:
- Hereditary factor. It was established: if one of the parents stutters, then the probability of this disorder in the child is from 20% to 70%. The frequency of stuttering in siblings is 18%, in twins – 32%, and in twins – 77%.
- Inconsistency of the cerebral hemispheres: Stuttering often occurs when retraining left-handedness to right-handedness. In this case, not only the connections between the regions of the brain are rebuilt and broken. The condition of the right hemisphere worsens, in which the leading centers of speech are located on the left-handed person.
- The state of the central nervous system: In some cases, a factor provoking stuttering may be damage to the fetal brain at the intrauterine stage of development.
- Psychological trauma: Speech disorder can cause long-term negative emotions — for example, conflict situations in the family or difficult adaptation in kindergarten. A single flight can also be a reason to start stuttering, but this is quite rare. The values of external stress factors are overestimated.
Harbingers of stuttering
– High, thin voice.
– Accelerated speech, as if chopped, with pauses.
– Repeats syllables, stretching sounds.
– Frequent breathing, shoulders on inspiration rise.
– The shoulders and neck are clamped, the head is lowered in tension.
If a child stutters, do not panic. According to statistics, with timely treatment before puberty, 80% of stuttering children completely forget about speech disorder. A combination of two different approaches works best: speak fluently and make stuttering easier. The child acquires the skills of calm speech; stiffness goes away, nothing interferes with communication.